Yoga Journal SENSE

ISSN2217-804X (Printed edit.)
ISSN2217-8775 (Online)

Respected colleagues,

International Scientific Yoga Journal SENSE calls for papers in the field of yoga and your scientific field.

Abstracts deadline – September 5, 2015
Final paper deadline – October 10, 2015
Peer-reviewer respond – November 10, 2015
The fifth issue of the journal will be published in December 2015.

Respectfully,
Prof. Predrag Nikic, PhD
Editor in Chief

 

The International Scientific Yoga Journal SENSE is indexed in British Library, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, National Library of Czech Republic.

 

 

Korice-casopis-1

Journal SENSE 2012

CASOPIS KONACAN 2013 plavi - 1

 
 
 
 

International Scientific Yoga Journal SENSE, Vol. 3, No. 3 (2013)

 

 

Effects of yoga practice on neuroendocrinological changes

Subramanian Swapna, Dayalan Haripriya, Elango Tamilselvi
SRM Medical Colege Hospital and Research Center
Kattankulathur, India

Abstract: Stressful experience may influence neuroendocrine, immune and cytokine functions of the biological systems. Academic Examination stress has been considered as a good model of naturally occurring psychological stress. It can be very potent stressors especially when the exam is perceived as important to the individual’s future career objective. Thus stress management can be used to help the students filter out some of the stress and enhance their performance. Since Examination Stress modifies hormones like Cortisol, Prolactin (PRL) and Beta endorphin (β-EP), we conducted an investigation on the effect of yoga practice on these parameters. Blood samples of Engineering students were collected at four intervals Base Line (BL), Exam Stress (ES), 3 and 6 weeks practice of SK&P during ES and these hormones were measured. ES elevated cortisol, PRL and β-EP levels significantly (p<0.001, p<0.05, p

Key words: yoga, beta endorphin, cortisol, exam stress, prolactin, sudarshan yoga kriya

UDC: 233-852.5Y:613
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 7-14
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 

 

Effect of yoga techniques practice in obese adults

Dhananjay V. Arankalle, Madan S. Kumar
National Institute of Naturopathy
Pune, India

Abstract: Obesity is a chronic medical condition characterized by excessive fat causing a generalized increase in the body mass. Apart from being a health concern worldwide, obesity may affect lung function. This study evaluated the effect of a four weeks yoga training protocol on anthropometric measures and peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate in obese adults.
Twenty-three obese adults (11 male and 12 female) aged mean±SD 36.17±12.87 with BMI greater than 25 were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric measurements and PEF were recorded before and after four weeks of Yoga training. A pre- post assessment of the participants was done on the first and last day of the yoga sessions.
Analysis was done using paired-samples t-test. After four weeks of yoga training there was statistically significant reduction in the weight (p<0.05) and body mass index (p=0.005) and improvement in PEF (p<0.005) in the obese participants. No significant changes were observed in waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, pulse rate and blood pressure.
There is a significant statistical correlation between regular yoga practice and weight loss, reduction in body mass index and improvement in PEF in obese adults. Studies on larger sample size are warranted to establish yoga as an independent modality for managing obesity and improving lung function.

Key words: yoga, obesity, anthropometric measures, BMI, PEF

UDC: 233-852.5Y:613.25
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 22-29
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Correlation between yoga practice, personality dimensions and life styles

Predrag Nikić, Bosiljka Janjušević
University Alfa – Belgrade
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: This paper examines the connection between the practice of yoga, expression of personality dimensions on which the Five Factor Theory of Personality is based and presence of the lifestyles.
We used the NEO PI R test of personality (Costa and McCrae, 1985) based on the Five Factor Model of Personality, which examines five dimensions (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness), each of which covers 6 more aspects of personality. Value orientations were examined by using the instrument of Kuzmanović (1995) and Pantić (1981), and preferred lifestyles were examined by the instrument of Popadić (1990, 1995). The results suggest that yoga techniqies practice provides ability to manage the needs and impulses and greater tolerance to frustration. It reduces the propensity for experiencing grief, shame, helplessness and loneliness and increases general tendency toward positive affect, greater stability and easier adaptation to new circumstances and stress.

Key words: yoga, personality, emotions, lifestyles, relaxation

UDC: 615.851
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 37-45
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Contribution of yoga to the social development of children

Babita Singh, Pt. Radheshyam Mishra
Ujjain Yoga Life Society International
Ujjain, India

Abstract: Children are much valued resource of a nation. Yoga, the science based on ancient wisdom and culture which emphasizes harmony and integration of the personality through all stages of life. In this paper, we research to which extent yoga can help personality development by influencing thoughts and behavior of children. We describe the case study in which participated 35 children (age group 5 – 12 years) for a period of 3 months. The various components of Yogic Life for Kids were standardized. “Yogic Games” invented by The Yoga Institute, Santacruz, Mumbai were used to impart some of the required yogic traits in children.
All the aspects of a child’s personality were analyzed before and after the program. Kids Yoga camp was organized for one month at our Yoga Centre. The kids were asked to follow the teachings of the camp for next two months on their own. Feedback was taken 3 months later to check the persistability of the yogic life style among children. The results of these analyses showed significant development in behavior of 23 children out of 35 who were analysed.

Key words: yoga for children, short term yoga, yogic life style, yogic games, social development

UDC: 233-852.5Y:159.922.7
Overview paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 54-65
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga as seen by Carl Gustav Jung

Dušan Pajin
International Yoga Academy
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: Carl Jung devoted a large portion of his spiritual and cultural research to the cultures of the East, yoga included. He dealt with the question of yoga for different reasons mostly during the 1930s (1932 – 1936 ), but later on, too. He did this most thoroughly in his seminar (a series of 4 lectures in October 1932), when he spoke in detail about the symbolism and archetypical meaning of chakras, under the topic “The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga”. Four years later, in 1936 Jung published a text Yoga and the West in which he said that yoga was one of the greatest inventions of the human mind, but that the Western mind was divided and thus could not practice yoga, and that the West would develop its own yoga based on Christianity. As a possible basis for this Western yoga, Jung had in mind Christian mystics and their studies (He spoke of this in his Foreword (1939) to Suzuki’s book, Introduction to Zen Buddhism). However, the development and application of yoga in the West in the last 80 years proved the latter two of his claims erroneous, and confirmed his attitude that yoga is one of the greatest achievements of the human spirit.

Key words: yoga, Jung, cultures of the East, yoga interpretation, yoga practice.

UDC: 233-852.5Y: 7.032
Overview paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 77-100
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 

 

Yoga exercises for lower back pain

Romana Romanov, Mirjana Radak
Fakultet za sport i turizam, Univerzitet Educons
Novi Sad, Serbia

Abstract: Lower back pain (LBP) as one of the most common painful conditions affects the modern man and is related to insufficient physical activity i.e. contemporary sedentary lifestyle. LBP is almost evenly distributed among the sexes (58 % of women and 45 % of men suffer from it), while about 75% of the the population have suffered an episode of lower back pain syndrome. (according to Jadrić i Antić, 2006). The majority of people with LBP syndrome recover completely as a result of suitable medical treatment and body exercise; however, in a certain percentage of people, the acute phase turns into the chronic condition. Chronic lower back pain (CLBP) is a limiting condition which impacts individual efficacy but is also correlated with social and economical effects (Meucci et al., 2013). In the treatment of alleviating the pain, physical movement and different types of body exercises play an important role. The goal of this paper is to select certain yoga postures/asanas on the basis of research done so far, as a possible mode of kinesiological operator in the treatment of LBP/CLBP. Yoga exercises can lead to the increase in muscle strength, muscular and cardio-respiratory endurance, range of movement and general flexibility. (Tran et al., 2007; Bhowmik et al., 2012). However, it is very important to make the correct choice and the sequence of yoga asanas (exercises) which can be applied as an adequate kinesiological treatment of LBP/CLBP, taking into account the health status and physical shape of the patient/person. Based on the biomechanical laws and kinesiological knowledge, yoga instructors can position themselves in all programs aiming to prevent and treat LBP/CLBP.

Key words: yoga exercises, asanas, treatment, lower back pain syndrome

UDC: 233-852.5Y:796.4
Overview Paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 124-135
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga breathing in xenon therapy

Dmitri Yudin
Yoga Federation of Russia
Moscow, Russia

Abstract: The combined application of yoga breathing technique and xenon therapy, allows reaching effective results when carrying out primary inhalations at patients with the raised indicators of anxiety and a depression at the expense of controlled and conscious breath with basic visualization. Available and clear methods of respiratory yoga which easily can master earlier not practicing, allow apprehending comfortably new feelings when carrying out the first procedures of inhalation xenon – an oxygen mix, at the expense of preservation of concentration of mind.

Key words: inhalation, yoga breathing, xenon, yoga, xenon therapy.

UDC: 233-852.5Y:612.2
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 146-151
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Buddhist-lamaist pagoda of Belgrade 1929-1944

Dragica Jovanović
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: The Kalmyk people, the people of Mongolic origins and Buddhist-Lamaist religion who lived people in Belgrade from 1920 till 1944. They came to Serbia as a part of the vast group of Russian refugees, who had fled Russia after the October Revolution. Majority of them (300-400 out of 500 in total) had settled in Belgrade, where the biggest Kalmyk colony in Europe was founded. Pagoda, which was built by them in Belgrade after smaller pre-war Buddhist pagodas in Russia, had been the first pagoda in Europe to have been built. The Belgrade Kalmyk colony ceased to exist in 1944, after its members had fled to Germany and later to the USA. During the struggle for liberation, the Pagoda was partly demolished and its function was altered later in absence of believers and equipment.

Key words: Kalmyks, Belgrade, Budhism, Temple

UDC: 24:7.03
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2013, Vol. 3 (3), 159-171
© 2013 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 
 
 

International Scientific Yoga Journal SENSE, Vol. 2, No. 2 (2012)

 
 

Scientific Yoga Research in India

Shirley Telles
Patanjali Research Foundation
Haridwar, India

Abstract: Yoga research in India began thousands of years ago, with the experiences of the great sages. Actual studies in the laboratory began in the 1920s by a sage, Swamy Kuvalayanada who had an ideal blend of medical and spiritual knowledge. He founded a yoga center called Kaivalyadhama (in west India). Through the 1920s until the 1960s the world over people wanted to study extraordinary powers of exceptional yogis. Exciting experiments were conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and on the late Swami Rama (from Rishikesh) at the Menninger Foundation (in the U.S.). However these experiments seemed to suggest that yoga had little to do with the common man and the effects required years of practice with extreme sacrifice. This changed when in the late 1960s Maharishi Mahesh Yogi introduced transcendental meditation to the world. For the first time changes were seen in University students after a short duration of practice. This lead to research at Swami Vivekanada Yoga Research Foundation (south India) which published and is publishing some of the most rigorously controlled trials on the therapeutic effects of yoga, the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (south India) and the Defense Insititute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, which took yoga to the Indian army. At this stage most of the research and interest in yoga was in India, the place of its’ origin. However the majority of Indians located in villages knew little about yoga, assuming the practice was for the educated, urbanized Indian. This changed with the mass movement of Patanjali Yogpeeth, which has taken yoga and ayurveda to Indians in remote villages. The institution is actively engaged in research and the results will be presented.

Key words: yoga, scientific research, India

UDC: 233.852.5Y:001.891 (540)
Review Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 9-15
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Highlights of Scientific Yoga Research Trend in Kaivalyadhama Yoga Institute, Lonavla, India

Subodh Tiwari, D.D. Kulkarni
Kaivalyadhama Yoga Institute
Lonavla, India

Abstract: This review paper shows the steps of the development of scientific thought about yoga in the Kaivalyadhama Yoga Institute in India. There are chronologically shown results of some scientific researches. There were researched effects of yoga practice on physical and mental health of the individual, on physiological and biological state in different life occasions. The results evoke interest of the scientists for further, more detailed researches of the effects of yoga practice in different fields of life.

Key words: yoga, scientific researches, yoga therapy

UDC: 233.852.5Y:001.891
Review Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 21- 26
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga for Healthy Aging

Manjunath N.K., Shirley Telles
University Vivekananda
Bangalore, India

Abstract: There was conducted comprehensive study of the influence of yoga in comparison to ayurveda (ancient Indian system of medicine) on age related health problems viz., physical, neurological and psychological measures in an elderly population. Subjects of research: of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five-year intervals) and gender and randomly allocated to three groups i.e., yoga, ayurveda (a herbal preparation), and wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions. The assessments included general health measures (pulmonary functions and anthropometric measurements), neurological (gait and balance, auditory perception, and autonomic functions) and psychological measures (depression scores and self rated sleep). Following six months of an integrated yoga practice (comprising of physical postures, voluntarily regulated breathing, guided relaxation, and meditation) there was a significant improvement in pulmonary functions, gait and balance, depression scores and the duration and quality sleep. The ayurveda group also showed improvements in pulmonary functions and gait, while the wait list control group showed signs of deterioration in pulmonary functions and mid arm circumference.

Key words: yoga, ayurveda, geriatric population, healthy aging

UDC: 233.852.5Y:613.98
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 32- 41
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga Intelligence in Management and Organizational Behavior

Predrag Nikić
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
University Alfa
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper we research if there is correlation between yoga intelligence and working competences of managers. Yoga intelligence, as relatively new concept, enables support to and follow-up of development of the ability of recognition and management of inner potentials in employees and perception of the deeper sense, i.e. meaning of the working activities. There was conducted education and yoga practice on sample made of 30 managers in Serbia during the period of three months (twice a week – asanas, complete yoga breathing, kapalabhati, bastrika, ekagrata, relaxation). Control group was made of respondents – managers who didn’t practice yoga. Results of this research show that yoga practitioners have a higher level of self-motivation, awareness about their body, emotions and mind processes than the control group respondents. Results suggest that yoga practice has a beneficial influence on the organizational behavior, empowers spirit of collectiveness and team work. Yoga practice enables employees to gain better knowledge about possibilities that are available to them and that are related to body, emotional and mind capacities, to understand them better which is the basis for their management. It can bi an instrument of organizational management used to increase working competences of managers.

Key words: yoga, yoga intelligence, management, organizational behavior

UDC: 233.852.5Y:005.96
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 50-57
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Correlation between Yoga Techniques Practice, Value Orientations and Motivation

Bosiljka Janjušević, Predrag Nikić
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper, we research correlation between yoga practice, value orientations and lifestyle preferences. We presumed that individuals who practice yoga techniques for a longer period of time are more open, democratically and humanistic oriented while competitive values and life style are less represented. Sample consisted of 111 respondents, among them there were 43 yoga instructors, 38 students of the International Yoga Academy and 30 yoga practitioners who are beginners in yoga, both sexes, 16 to 64 years of age. There were assessed value orientations by the instrument of Kuzmanović (1995) and Pantić (1981) and lifestyle preferences were assessed by Popadić (1990, 1995) instrument. Results of the research show that there are statistically significant correlations between yoga practice duration, value orientations and lifestyles. We noticed that yoga practitioners in Serbia are more opened and they more often choose humanistic lifestyle and at the same time, they show lower tendency toward competitiveness as the motivational factor.

Key words: yoga, value orientations, lifestyle, motivation, awareness

UDC: 233.852.5Y
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 66-72
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Effect оf Yoga Practices оn HS-CRP in Indian Railway Engine Drivers of Metropolis

U. Shete Sanjay, D.D. Kulkarni, G.S. Thakur
Kaivalyadhama Yoga Institute
Lonavla, India

Abstract: To examine the effect of yoga training on high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid profile levels in railway engine drivers working in metropolis.
Methods: Male drivers of Indian railways, age ranged from 30 to 42 yrs with no known medical disorders, were randomized to yoga group (n=16) and control group (n=16). At the baseline and after completion of one month yoga training both the groups were assessed for hs-CRP and lipid profile levels. The yoga group practiced in a set of yoga techniques for 1 hr. daily in the morning along with daily routine work, while control group engaged in daily routine work only.
Results: Statistically significant reduction (p<0.01) was evident in both hs-CRP and serum total cholesterol.Conclusion: Yoga based lifestyle modifications could contribute to prevention of coronary artery disease.

Key words: hs-CRP, CAD, Lipid profiles, Yoga, Railway engine drivers.

UDC: 233.852.5Y:616.125
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 79-86
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga and Progressive Relaxation for Anxiety and Tension Reduction

Leslaw Kulmatycki
University School of Physical Education
Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract: In this paper we research whether relaxation techniques and yoga exercises appear to improve psychological wellbeing and health. The study investigates the effectiveness of yoga and Jacobson progressive relaxation in relation to tension, energy and anxiety. The healthy students-participants (n=154) were recruited from post-graduated courses provided by the University School of Physical Education. General well-being and stress related symptoms were assessed in a pre-relaxation session. Than they were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) postural relaxation yoga, (2) progressive relaxation, (3) control group. ‘Tension’ and ‘energy’ level were measured using Subjective Tension Scale (STS) and Energy Level Scale (ELS). Anxiety was measure by Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Final results show that the two experimental groups had a lower level of tension and anxiety than the control group. Results show that postural relaxation yoga group is more effective than Jacobson progressive relaxation, the energy level has increased mostly in yoga group. Yoga kind of relaxation seems to be more effective in reducing of anxiety than two other techniques, significantly different (p < 0.05). Yoga can be used as an instrument of psychological well being. Yoga relaxation appears to be associated the most with improvements from before intervention in psychological well-being including increased optimistic energy and reduction of tension and anxiety.

Key words: yoga, progressive relaxation, tension, energy, anxiety, wellbeing

UDC: 233.852.5Y:159.96
Original scientific paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 93-102
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Uddiyana Bhandha – a Yoga Approach to Core Stability

S.N. Omkar
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore, India

Abstract: Core stability in general involves the muscular control required around the lumbar spine to maintain functional stability. Stability and movement are both critically dependent on the coordination of all the muscles surrounding the lumbar spine. This paper describes a yogic breathing technique (Uddiyana Bandha) that helps in enhancing core stability. In order to verify whether the practical results of the exercise corroborated with the theoretical research, an observation of the Transversus Abdominis at the umbilical level was carried out using ultrasound imaging techniques. The findings support the theoretical analysis.

Key words: Transversus Abdominis (TA), lumbar multifidus (MF), thoracolumbar fascia (TLF), intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) mechanism.

UDC: 233.852.5Y:613.7.73
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 112-117
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Effect of Bhramari Pranayama among the Poor Learning Students – a Pilot Study

B. N. Y. S. Shankari
Synergy Youth Global Care Club
Bangalore, India

Abstract: Academic performance is concerned with quality and quantity of learning attained in a subject after a period of Instruction. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of bhramari pranayama on academic performance in relation. This study was conducted among the 65 poor academic performance students, in the period of 7days regular monitor of their attention with the modality of stroop and word test.Pre and Post data were collected every day of bhramari pranayama session. Here we used the token method among all groups. Each group has been assigned for 10 min’s interval to each person in a group, finally record been updated from every subject. All updated Data were analysed by spss, here we got a significant result. It shows Bhramari pranayama helps to improve the attention process throughout by we can improve their academic performance.

Key words: yoga, school performance, pranayama

UDC: 233.852.5Y:371.53
Overview paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 124-128
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga Breathing Techniques as an Auxiliary Method in Elimination of the Factors that Cause Increased Emetic Reflex
in Patients Treated on Clinic of Prosthodontics

Dmitri Yudin
Yoga Federation of Russia
Moscow, Russia

Abstract: The emetic reflex often renders impossible carrying out of adequate dentistry treatment and the further using of the made denture. There can also appear complications in the form of aspiration asphyxia and difficult social adaptation of the patient. Research problem is to reveal the factors provoking an emetic reflex, to develop algorithm of decrease in reactance of vegetative nervous system at the given patients. Group of patients 8 person from 56 surveyed (6 women of 2 men in the age of from 23 up to 71) which showed complaints hypersalivation, the raised emetic reflex on reception at the dentist, impossibility to use earlier made removable dentures. Patients are surveyed for revealing risk of occurrence of an emetic reflex, revealed and comfortably adapted for the made designs. The algorithm of revealing, elimination and maintenance of decreased reactance (inductive reaction) of vegetative nervous system and normalization of process of adaptation at patients with the expressed emetic reflex, based on practice of respiratory yoga is developed.

Key words: an emetic reflex, adaptation, prevention, respiratory yoga

UDC: 233.852.5Y:611.1/26
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 133-136
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Effect of Yoga Similiris Practice on Pulmonary Function

Tamara Tomić, Branka Novaković, Jasmina Gačić
Institute for mother and child heath care “Dr Vukan Čupić”
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: There are numerous studies that indicate the positive impact of yoga on health. Among other things, it is known that certain yoga asanas if practiced continuously and regularly have positive effects on the human body. Primarily on pulmonary function, cardiac work and endocrine glands. It is believed that yoga exercises may interact with different somatosensory-neuro-endocrine mechanisms and hence their therapeutic effect. Our study was aimed at monitoring the effects of Similiris yoga program on pulmonary function,with lung function tests FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and PEF (peak expiratory flow rate). Similiris yoga program involves the practice of hatha yoga asanas and pranayama practice. The study included 93 patients of both sexes between 18 and 25 years of age, who during the six-month period regularly and continuously practiced yoga exercises twice a week for 90 minutes. Lung function measurements were performed with Microlife digital spirometer in two phases: Phase 1, before and after the first hour of similiris program, Phase 2 measurements were conducted last moment after 6 months of exercise. The results obtained in phase 1 show that there was no statistically significant difference in the change in FEV1 before and after class, still in phase 2 there is a statistically significant difference compared to the measurements in the first phase 2, 87 ± 1.07 L / min, while in Phase 2 values were 3.14 ± 0.87 L / min. When it comes to stage 1 for PEF amounted to 3.22 ± 1.1 L / s, while phase 2 was 5:43 + / – 1.7 L / s. The results obtained in phase1 show that there was no statistically significant difference in the change in FEV1 and PEF (p ˃ 0.05), still in phase 2 there was a highly statistically significant difference compared with measurements of FEV1 and PEF in phase 1 (p ˂ 0.001). This has shown that the practice of yoga similiris has positive influence on lung function.

Key words: yoga, similiris, pulmonary function tests, FEV1, PEF

UDC: 233.852.5Y:611.1/24
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 141-149
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Yogic Education: Yoga-Based Management of Work-Related Health Risks in Office Workers, Stress and Upper Extremity Musculosceletal Disorders

Neda Lazarević1, Marie Andrée Baillon2,3
1YogaLite, 2Association RESPYRS, 3Universié Lille2
Lille, France

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in Yoga throughout the Western world. The concept of Yogic Education has emerged from reflections upon the use, the utility and the benefits of Yoga in the West. The concept proposes a novel yoga-based framework for development of the psycho-social life skills defined by World Health Organisation. Yogic Education proposes a methodology for Education for Health based on Yoga with a view to maintaining lifelong wellbeing. The framework for Yogic Education includes a number of components: citizenship education, physical education, emotional education, education for self-awareness, and education for being. The proposed approach is accessible to all, ensuring protection of the physical, psychological and social integrity of each individual.
The formalisation of the concept of Yogic Education allowed setting up the first academic course awarding a University Diploma in Yogic Education in France at the University of Lille 2. The project Yoga-based management of work-related health risks in a population of office workers was carried out as part of this course. The project looked at two organizations, in private and in public sector, where the participants reported significant levels of stress and symptoms of musculoskeletal discomfort in upper extremities. The main objective of the project was to provide participants with means for positive transformation from being passively subjected to health risks at work to taking active part in ensuring their own wellbeing.

Key words: yoga, yogic education, health, stress management, work-related musculoskeletal disorders

UDC: 233.852.5Y:364.2.37
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 158-172
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Efficacy of Yoga Therapy in Chronic Low Back Pain – A Critical Review

Sunil K. Paudel
Spark Group of Hospitals
Kathmandu, Nepal

Abstract: Chronic back pain is a major public health and socio-economic problem worldwide. Standard pain treatments for chronic back pain are not very effective and often unsatisfactory. A lot of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients are recommended or take help of complementary and alternative therapies including Yoga therapy.
Critical literature review of yielded quality papers on ‘Efficacy of Yoga on CLBP. Electronic searches of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL- Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Zetoc and PEDro for the above purpose. Electronic searches yielded articles, pilot studies and randomised trials in the web and journals. Only non descriptive papers were selected for critical review. On the basis of the reviewed studies yoga seems to be moderately effective in improving functional disability, flexibility and in reducing symptoms and the usage of pain medications in CLBP. This review also exposes the need for higher quality yoga intervention studies for CLBP.

Key words: yoga, yogic therapy, asana, chronic back pain.

UDC: 233.852.5Y:611.88.959
Overview paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 187-195
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

A Review of Selected Yoga Research Findings from ACYTER, JIPMER in 2008-12

Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, S. Zeena, Madanmohan,
E. Jayasettiaseelon, G. Dayanidy, L. Vithiyalakshmi
ACYTER, JIPMER
Puducherry, India

Abstract: The Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research (ACYTER), a collaborative venture between JIPMER, Puducherry and Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga (MDNIY), New Delhi was established by an MOU between JIPMER and MDNIY in June 2008 and is focusing primarily on the role of Yoga in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes mellitus. More than 24,000 patients have benefited from Yoga therapy consultation and attended therapy individual and group sessions in the past three years and a detailed survey has also been published based on feedback from patients. With the active collaboration of MDNIY, New Delhi many research projects are being conducted at JIPMER as collaborative efforts between ACYTER and the Departments of Physiology, Medicine, Biochemistry and Cardiology. This paper summarizes some of the important findings from 12 research works at ACYTER between 2008 and 2012 that provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of Yoga. These can provide a basis for further studies exploring the physiological, psychological and biochemical mechanisms such beneficial effects.

Key words: yoga, yoga therapy, health

UDC: 233.852.5Y:616-092.11
Overview paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 203-213
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Universality of Yoga Knowledge

Brankica Šurlan
Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Ondřejov, Czech Republic

Abstract: The starting point of this work is the hypothesis that yoga knowledge may be consider as a basic and universal knowledge with wide applications. Considering the yoga knowledge from the perspective of religion, philosophy, and science, we conclude that yoga is the science about development of humans and their potentials. In this paper we argue why we regard that yoga knowledge is spatially and temporally universal by nature and applicable in many areas of life. Also, bearing in mind that the development of human being influences the overall development and progress of mankind, we additionally argue that the implementation of yoga knowledge is necessary for mankind to continue moving in the direction of development with greater awareness and better ability to guide and manage human and natural resources.

Key words: yoga, knowledge, universality, time

UDC: 233.852.5Y:001.1
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 224-233
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga, Religion and Mysticism

Dušan Pajin
International Yoga Academy
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: Although a number of authors – in past times and contemporary – tried to link, or to make yoga close, or same as religion, others have rightly shown that yoga is not religion. One of the well known contemporary authors who related yoga with religion, was Mircea Eliade (1907-86), who tried to define the model from Bhagavad-Gita (which promotes bhakti yoga, which has religious character), as prototype of yoga and yoga teachings. In opposition to him, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) rightly pointed, that the goal and teachings of yoga are of a non-religious character.
Some analogies – that can be found between some aspects of yoga and mysticism – were a starting point for Surendranath Dasgupta (1885-1952), to connect and interpret concepts and practice of yoga in terms of mysticism. This stand was more reasonable then the approach of those who interpreted yoga in terms of religion. It was particularly convincing in the domain of what Dasgupta named as the third level of knowledge.

Key words: yoga, bhakti yoga, yoga not a religion, mysticism

UDC: 233.852.5Y:2-212
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 243-258
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga as the Living Philosophy for Meaningful Life

Arun Raghuwanshi
Bhopal University
Bhopal, India

Abstract: In this paper, yoga is perceived as the living philosophy – a way of living for authentic, meaningful life. This involves following ethical-moral code of conduct as proposed in yama-niyama, a healthy life style by practicing pranayma (proper breathing exercise) and asanas (postures) and meditation practices (personal experience and realization of ultimate truth or reality through mediation and other methods of expansion of consciousness). Alongside, yoga way of life also has the potential to solve some critical problems of present globalized world – environmental crisis, conflict of civilizations, war, violence, terrorism and global neurosis – through reconditioning and rewiring of the human brain schemes in positive way.

Key words: yoga, living philosophy, global peace, environmental conservation

UDC: 233.852.5Y:581.52
Review Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 275-284
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Effects of Yoga on Prakrti in Children – a Pilot Study

S.P. Suchitra, H.R. Nagendra
Vivekananda University
Bangalore, India

Abstract: Effect of Yoga on the personality of children and trigunas have been proven. But there are no available studies on the effect of yoga on tridoshas, which may contribute to the restoration of positive health. Objective of the study was to understand the effect of Integral Yoga module on the Prakrti of children.
The study was single group pre-post design. During th period of three months, 30 children aged 8-12 yrs, selected from Maxwell public school practiced Integral Yoga module including asanas, pranayama, nadanusandhana, chanting and games. Ayurveda child personality inventory was administered before and after. Paired sample T-test was applied. Vata was decreased significantly and Pitta increased significantly. Increase in Kapha was not significant. Integral Yoga Module has the significant effect on the tridoshas in children.

Key words: tridosha, prakriti, vāta, pitta, kapha

UDC: 233.852.5Y:2-455
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 293-298
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 

 

Writing from the Body: Yoga as a Method of Representation

Jennifer Olejownik
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio, USA

Abstract: In this article we explore the possibility of using yoga to try to perform research. The author reflects on the fortified knowledge that she approaches through the practice of yoga, in order to give meaning to the collected data on women’s spiritual group in the rural south. Specificity of this paper is that yoga is used not only as a means to organize and display data, but also a means to explore the boundaries between the roles of participant/observer and the yogi/researcher.

Key words: yoga, methods of presentation, somatic

UDC: 233.852.5Y
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 303-312
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Mandala as a Gift and the Reciprocal Gift – Mandalas that are Parts of Museum Collections of Belgrade

Dragica Jovanović
Republic Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: The mandala is a diagram that is used for meditation. In tantra yoga, mandala is a visual design of the life scale – a symbolic composition, energy schemes, the matrix code from which everything is built, warehouse of spiritual essence. Mandala is a summary of the cosmic revelation. Researching mandalas as arts of the Hindu-Buddhist cultural circle in the geographical territory of the Republic of Serbia, it was found that in the Belgrade museum collections there are mandalas originating from Nepal. They are a gift of the President of Nepal handed over to the then president of FR Yugoslavia.. They are kept in the Museum of Yugoslav History in Belgrade, Serbia..

Key words: mandala, tantra yoga, gift, Belgrade museum collections.

UDC: 233.852.5Y:7.03
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 321-329
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 

Yoga – а Symbolic Regulation of the Human World

Dragica Kumrić
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper, the term yoga means a complete set of (techniques, knowledge, experiences) directed “unities” (samadhi). It was presumed that yoga, as a specific form of symbolic behavior, represents an element of the organization of cultural space and time, or the symbolic arrangement of individual’s world. Testing the hypothesis that yoga class symbolically arranges individual’s world, i.e. that the marginal (liminal phase) is an element of the organization of cultural time and space. A subject of analysis was a yoga class of the instructor of the Yoga Federation of Serbia. The subject of the research was presented through the idealistic model in terms of the ideal functioning of the model. Through the symbol, natural models become cultural models. For participant (participant at the yoga class) nature of the situation imposes a model to organize the space and time. Each yoga class achieves differentiation of time and space. In this perception of time and space, division into sacred and profane space and time is followed by the clear demarcation. In the border zone (liminal phase) participant tries to organize his/her world and to master the unknown world by interacting (or at least one of its parts); i.e. this way, yoga class participant symbolically arranges his/her world. As a specific form of symbolic behavior, yoga class may be included in the means by which the transformation is achieved. In other words, through yoga class there isbuild a model of the space related to the time interval in which there is performed symbolic organization of the individual’s world. We can conclude that yoga class participants share communication experience while taking it through different sensory channels, they perform regulated sequence of exercises (prescribed series of Yoga Federation of Serbia) following development within a space of their own and within a certain time. Verbal conduction of the class, three-layer breathing, yoga asanas, relaxation, equally constitute components of the overall message. Taking part in yoga class, participants recognize all these messages and at the same time they integrate them into a single experience.

Key words: yoga, sacred, profane, marginal ritual.

UDC: 233.852.5Y:24-5
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2012, Vol. 2 (2), 342-355
© 2012 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research

 
 
 
 

International Scientific Yoga Journal SENSE, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2011)

 
 

Effects of Yoga Practice on Behavior

Surendra Nath Dubey
Dr.R.M.L.Avadh University,
K.S. Saket P.G. College
Ayodhya, Faizabad, India

Abstract: A group of 30 boys and 20 girls aged between 16 to 18 years, similar in educational standard and economic status were tested on seven psychological variables, viz; self- concept, tolerance, Ahimsa, Truth fullness, Faith and Fidelity. The group was them divided in two having equal number of boys and girls of similar characteristics on these variables. One group (Experimental) was given yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayam and yogic Jogging for 15 days daily for 1:30 hours in the morning while the other group (control) was set free to adopt their original life style. At the end of 15th day both the groups were tested on seven psychological variables. It was found that the subjects of experimental group receiving yogic practices have significantly high scores on Self- concept, Tolerance, Ahimsa, Truthfulness, Faith and Fidelity as compared to their scores on these variables before start of the yogic practices. There was no significant change in scores of control group of subjects on these variables.

Key words: yoga, behavior, self concept, tolerance, truthfulness

UDC: 615.851:316.62
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 9-12
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Concept оf the Yoga Inteligence

Predrag Nikić
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper, we analyze sustainability of the new concept: yoga intelligence. Discipline that is old for thousands of years has been analyzed from the new angle. Yoga has been perceived as the form of intelligence, considering that it integrates abilities which establish balance between phisiological, emotional, cognitive and motivational processes. Yoga concept is based on existence of the latent processes and ability of their recognition, understanding and aplication, with the goal to achieve the unity – state of samadhi. The starting point in creation of the concept of yoga intelligence is the search for meaning. In this paper, we analyze the questionnaire constructed for estimation of the yoga intelligence and there was expressed importance that shows the need for the further researches and confirmation of its validity.

Key words: yoga, intelligence, yoga intelligence, concept of the yoga intelligence, meaning

UDC: 615.851:37.03
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 17-35
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Correlation of the Yoga Techniques Practice with Locus of Control and Anger Management Style

Bosiljka Janjušević
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: This paper refers to the examination of the style of anger in people who practice yoga techniques. We examine the role of locus of control in the control of anger. We consider the assumption that people who practice yoga techniques are emotionally stable, cooperative, moderate, they tend to slowly develop and hold back the anger.
In this research we used the instrument NEO PI R (Costa and McCrae, 1985) based on the Big Five model of personality and the scale of externality (Bezinović, 1988). The survey was conducted on June 2011 on the sample of 111 yoga practitioners, including 43 certified instructors of the Yoga Federation of Serbia, 38 students of the International Yoga Academy and 30 students of yoga classes, both sexes, aged from 16 to 64 years. There was found correlation between the duration of yoga practice and variables that describe the ability to develop and express anger.

Key words: yoga, anger, locus of control, relaxation, NEO PI R

UDC: 615.851:159.942
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 55-70
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Effect of Yogic Practices on Coronary Heart Patients with Special Reference to Shavasana and Meditation

Biman Bihari Paul
Gujarat Vidyapith University, Ahmedabad, India

Abstract: In this paper we present results of the research conducted on sample made of 104 subjects. We tested coronary disease patients, 81 men and 23 women from Ahmedabad, India. There were measured initial blood pressure test, blood cholesterol, Hdl/Ldl ratio. The data of 2-D echo studies were also recorded in 6 subjects.
The statistical analysis of data revealed that the experimental group showed significant difference between pretest and posttest value in systolic blood pressure (t = 7.835) and in diastolic blood pressure, (t = 11.896), HDL cholesterol(t-9.0470) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) t=7.620 was significant. No significant change was found in case of Control group.

Key words: yoga, yoga meditation, coronary disease, Shavasana

UDC: 615.851:616.1
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 86-91
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Autonomous Control of Cardiovascular Function in Yoga Instructors and Effects of Energetic Renewal
on Modulation of Autonomic Function

Branka Novaković1, Sanja Pavlović2, Branislav Milovanović2
Institute for mother and child health care, ”Dr Vukan Čupić”, Belgrade1
Neurocardiological laboratory, Clinical Center ”Bežanijska kosa”, Belgrade2

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess existence of connection between the yoga practice and autonomic nervous system activity, i.e. connection between autonomic heart control and yoga practice, as well as influence of some yoga techniques (pranayama and shavasana) on autonomic modulation of cardiac function. Results of the research show that yoga practice contributes to the balance of sympathovagal relation and baroreflex balance. Energetic renewal – relaxation (shavasana) improves sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity.

Key words: yoga, heart rate varibility, energetic renewal with relaxation, meditation, autonomic nervous system.

UDC: 615.851:616.1
Original Scientific Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 99-109
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Contribution of Yoga to Achievement of the Full Capacities in Youth

Jitendra Mohan
Department of Psychology Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Abstract: In this paper we analyze the possibilities of India’s youth, their problems, obstacles, and ways to overcome them. Population boom that follows India is characterized by a high level of suicides among youth. In this paper we examine the reasons for the presence of high stress, hopelessness and suicide. The author explores the level to which yoga practice can help overcome the problems that young people face, offering them a new (complete) understanding of reality and teaching them the easiness in achieving the desired results. Yoga practice can open up the space to achieve top results, as well. Although thousands of years old, yoga discipline attracts the attention of researchers even today, offering new discoveries of effectiveness of its application.

Key words: yoga, psychology, excellence, youth, stress

UDC: 615.851:159.944
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 122-128
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Role оf Yoga in Psychology аnd Development

Savita Deo1, Samprasad Vinod2
Psychology Department, Pune University, India1,
Shanti Mandir, Pune, India2

Abstract: In this paper we consider systems of Samkhya and Yoga philosophy and psychology with the aim to understand importance of yoga for self-development and contribution in establishing health balance. We also emphasize the methodological issues and challenges related to measurements of effects of the yoga practice and its techniques’ application. Yoga is the discipline that encourages proper personality development by offering methods of self-development. By applying them, we will establish and maintain health.

Key words: personality, yoga, yoga meditation, well being

UDC: 615.851: 351.77
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 135-139
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Pranayama in the Function of Life Transformation

Pratibha Rita Gramann
CA Takshila University, Santa Clara, CA, USA

Abstract: This research project examines the perceptions of long-time practitioners of the yoga pranayama technique regarding the effects for their life. The focus is their professional, personal, health and spiritual life. This exploratory, phenomenological study utilizes the qualitative instrument of semi-structured questions. Participants are interviewed individually. The material is transcribed, analyzed, and thematically organized to create a meaningful report of the results of the collected data. Yoga techniques of pranayama are important tools for achieving the higher levels of consciousness that results in creating the new life philosophies and acceptance of the new lifestyle.

Key words: yoga, pranayama, everyday life, experience, awareness

UDC: 615.851
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 145-150
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Representation of Yoga in Different Types of Paper Worksat the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education
in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš

Natalija Mihajlović

Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper we research presence of yoga, as the form of physical activity in institutions where the physical activity is primary. There was researched representation of yoga as the theme in different papers written by students and in another literature – monographs, articles, books, at the Faculties for sports and physical education in the Republic of Serbia, in the data basis of the Faculty libraries. Theoretical analysis led to the results which have shown that yoga as the course doesn’t exist in any degree program at these Faculties, but this subject is still present in different kinds of papers. In the libraries, the majority of the literature is in the form of articles, monographs and books, and less in the form of papers written by the students. Although yoga is represented in different papers at these Faculties, its representation is still very low. Existing literature in the libraries is old and there are no research papers in yoga done by students. Since yoga is activity that could be useful to both these institutions and its students, yoga researches and studies should be more represented.

Key words: yoga, physical activity, yoga researches

UDC: 615.851:796
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 157-163
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

The Concept of Time in Yoga

Brankica Šurlan
Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Ondřejov, Czech Republic

Abstract: In this paper, we consider our everyday linear concept of time, from where we draw the conclusion that time is only one perception, and that it depends on someone who perceives it. We put major emphasis on the Yoga concept of time for which we believe that it has common points with the quantum concept of time. In yoga, time has a cyclical nature. The concept of time is closely linked to the cycles of creation and dissolution of our Universe. Time is eternal, with neither the beginning nor the end. In yoga there is no division of time to past, present, and future. There is only the eternal NOW which is contained in all our past and future. In this paper, we also point out practical benefits to the daily life, which follow from adopting the yoga concept of time.

Key words: yoga, time, concept of time

UDC: 615.851:52
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 172-178
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Yoga – Mind and Body

Dušan Pajin
University of Art, Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss similarities between the psychosomatics in yoga, and contemporary medicine and psychology. Psychosomatics of yoga offers practices which can serve either as prevention of certain disorders, or as therapy for certain diseases. While psychosomatics in medicine mostly serves as an explanation for certain diseases, and as orientation in choosing the best therapy, psychosomatics in yoga mostly serves prevention.
Prevention is also important for medicine, but it is kept aside in it, i.e. in most case medicine is called upon when you have an obvious disorder, although prevention is more emphasized in modern times. In this paper we point to the influence of yoga on development of transpersonal psychology, as a particular orientation within the personality theories, and psychotherapies. In particular it was influential in articulation of certain concepts, like “peak experience” and its meaning in life.

Key words: yoga, psychosomatics, prevention, healing, transpersonal psychology.

UDC: 615.851
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 186-193
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

A Review: History of Revival of Yoga in 20th Century and Establishment of Yoga as a Science in the 21st century

Arun Raghuwanshi
Bhopal University, Bhopal, India

Abstract: Last century may be regarded as the century of the revival and scientific scrutiny of yoga. The present paper is an effort to review the history of the revival of yoga during 20th century and tries to identify the persons, organisations, institutions, events, movements, research milestones and factors that resulted in the establishment of yoga as a science in 21st century.
We researched the milestones and turning points related to scientific inquiries and researches on the varied aspects of yoga during its historic journey from being merely a ‘physical- spiritual discipline’ to assuming the full significance as the ‘Science of Consciousness’.
In this paper we also analyse and discuss the factors that lead to the massive popularity and scientific aspects of yoga and its therapeutic benefits as a ‘mind-body’ medicine, intervention and alternative therapy in recent times.

Key words: revival of yoga, yoga meditation, scientific aspects of yoga, consciousness

UDC: 615.851
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 208-216
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Relevance of Yoga in View of Reconsidering the Liberal Model of Global Business and
Creating Global Economic and Social Paradigm

Viktor Radun
University Metropolitan, Belgrade

Abstract: The global financial and economic crisis has shown all the vulnerabilities of the neoliberal market model of growth and development. The central challenge which current economic theory faces with is the challenge of requiestioning of the theoretical framework upon which a model of globalization and a global economic system has been built. The economic science and the science of management search for novel solutions. Many new business concepts were created, stressing the growing role of the ethics and social responsibility of the business, as well as the harmonization and integration of relationships among business, society and environment, expressing the trend of building new paradigm, which aims to create a spiritual economy. Searching for new, alrernative solutions, theoreticians turn to the philosophy and praxis of Yoga.

Key words: paradigm, spiritual economy, philosophy and ethics of Yoga, Karma Yoga, global economic crizis.

UDC: 615.851:330
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 226-240
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

The Final Exam for Yoga Instructors as a “Rite de passage”

Dragica Kumrić
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper we talk about the final exam for the instructors of yoga at the International Yoga Academy in Belgrade, viewed as a transition rite. The final exam is a closing act which ends a period in life of an individual through which its status in society is formally changed. The aim of this work is to discover the latent meaning and function of the final exam for yoga instructors through an analysis of the symbolic behavior (ritual) on its manifestation level. The final exam for instructors in the International Yoga Academy of the Yoga Federation of Serbia in Belgrade that provides programs of education accredited by the Health Council of Serbia, was taken to be the object of analysis. Aside from the indicated transition structure of a rite in three phases, final exam for yoga instructors is characterized by the carried out demarcation of time in the first place, followed by marking out the social development of an individual through visible elements (clothes, food, behavior), clearly distinct from social routines and everyday life. Analysis confirms the already established ritual pattern of transition that accompanies the education process. In conclusion, the final exam in the International Yoga Academy of the Yoga Federation of Serbia in Belgrade is a part of the educational process that changes the status of participants in society, in ethnological and anthropological literature regarded as the transition rite.

Key words: final exam in yoga, transition rite, ritual, change of social status, ethnology and anthropology

UDC: 615.851:572
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 255-262
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Geographic Specifications of India аnd the Appearance of Yoga

Vukica Janković
Institute for Improvement of Education
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: The article brings out specific geographic characteristics of India, as well as their correlation with the beginning and development of yoga as a philosophical system and philosophy of life. Besides geografic specifics, India has huge spiritual heritage. Compound natural and anthropogenic emanate from elementary knowledge of everything that exist. If we want to comprehend the spiritual, we have to be open to the nature that surrounds us.Studying the geographical characteristics of one climate, we could search for specific quality, habits and lifestyles of people that live in certain natural conditions. Geographical specifics of India may affect its inhabitants and the art of their activity, as well as forming a deeper thought process, that we can consider as one of the factors in the appearance of yoga system in India.

Key words: geography environment, yoga philosophy, Himalayas mountain, river Ganges, India.

UDC: 615.851:91
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 271-280
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Effect of Yoga on Development of Culture

Aleksandra Ristić
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: This paper explores whether practicing yoga may become a method for conscious shaping of life, ie. means of self-cultivation and development of culture in their surroundings. The goals of yoga and culture have the same direction, which is above individual design, development, evolution of consciousness.
The existence of schools for the training of yoga instructors and increased interest of individuals to actively create well-being in their life through yoga practice affect the development of culture. Culture is focused on the transformation of personality and all-round development of man’s essential powers. Yoga culture derives from the assumptions, values and behaviors that promote the jama and nijama. The practice of yoga provides an opportunity for personal development through which an individual finds meaning through expressing their full potential, to more substantial and comprehensive life .

Key words: yoga, culture, development, self-cultivation

UDC: 615.851:316.722
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 292-298
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Living Space as a Reflection of Maturity of the Yoga Practitioners

Aleksandra Mitić
International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Research
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper, we searched for the answer whether internal development achieved by the yoga practice influences the creation and establishment of external space in which we reside. We study external space, its rules arising from the yoga philosophic perception of existence. The discipline of yoga establishes internal order, i.e. internal developmental architecture that, according to Patanjali, has eight levels. We can conclude that direct external space decoration IS mainly reflection in the mirror of the internal (dis)comfort and (non)established balance.

Key words: yoga, sacred architecture, energy, tidiness

UDC: 615.851:71/72
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 306-309
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Yoga for Health

Meena Sehgal
Panjab University
Chandigarh, India

Abstract: In this paper, we examine different approaches to yoga as the discipline of self-development. Interview was conducted on a sample of 30 yoga cognoscente. Their views about yoga, yogic routes to health and happiness, show that yoga can be perceived as contemporary too of mental and emotional harmony that improves overall health. Yoga contributes to creation of the life style in which biological, social, emotional, psychological, creative and spiritual dimensions of individual are daily cultivated.

Key words: yoga, health

UDC: 615.851:351.77
Vocational paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 322-327
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Understanding the Science of Yoga

Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
ICYER at Ananda Ashram
Pondichery, India

Abstract: In this paper we discuss methodology of yoga, together with significant aspects of integration of yoga and modern medicine. We suggest two way integration of experimentally oriented modern science and experientially modeled learning of yoga, that can bring us many answers for the challenges which burden modern individual. We emphasize importance of connecting the yoga knowledge and practice with the modern medical approaches to health, with the aim to improve the quality of life. Yoga is comprehensive, holistic science about human being, which at the same time deals with all aspects of philosophy, psychology and functionality of the conscious evolution. This corpus of knowledge given through the intensive, systemathic, introvert research of the functioning of human mind, is passed from Master to student for centuries.

Key words: yoga science, integration, modern medicine

UDC: 615.851
Review Paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 334-344
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Benefits of Yoga Practice in Aging Population

Santosh Kumar Mishra
SNDT Women’s University
Mumbai, India

Abstract: The term “aging population” implies shifts in the age distribution of a population toward older ages. The population of senior citizens is growing rapidly as well as their interest in leading active and fit lives. In this paper, yoga is perceived as suggestion of mobility and reduction of many health problems in aging population. Having in mind health benefits that yoga practice provides, some insurance companies cover the costs of yoga practice. Yoga can be seen as important tool that can be used with the aim to solve the health concerns of the aging population.

Key words: yoga, aging, ancient practice, health concerns.

UDC: 615.851:159.922.6
Vocational paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 356-364
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 

Yoga for Children with Disabilities

Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor
Gujarat Research Society, Dr Madhuri Shah Campus
Mumbai, India

Abstract: In this paper we point out importance of the yoga practice for children and youth with disabilities. We indicate possibility of adapting certain asanas (body postures) and make them available for children and youth with disabilities, but with a full effect, i.e. with needed attention.
We can conclude that benefits of yoga practice should be searched in balance of digestive, cardiovascular, skeletal and muscular systems. There were noticed positive changes in development of children: motor coordination is enhanced, increased body awareness and orientation are achieved. Yoga practice improves studying, creativity and imagination. Therefore yoga is more and more used to complement an individual’s already established medical care, therapy program and exercise regime.

Key words: yoga, children with disabilities, development, health.

UDC: 615.851:159.922.76
Vocational paper

SENSE, 2011, Vol. 1 (1), 374-380
© 2011 by the International Society for Scientific Interdisciplinary Yoga Researches

 
 
 
 

Proceedings of the scientific papers presented at The First International Scientific Interdisciplinary Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010

 
 

Studies on neuro-endocrinological correlates of yogic pathways

Prof. Dr. Arun Raghuwanshi
Bhopal University
Bhopal, India

Abstract: Homeostatic mechanisms are hormonally regulated by different endocrine glands. This function is regulated by two parts of the autonomous nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic. Since the whole nervous system is controlled by anterior and posterior parts of hypothalamus, we can say state that the whole mechanism is controlled by the brain region. Hypothalamic region is supported by limbic system, including amygdala, hypocampus and a few more smaller structures. Yoga practicing stimulates work of endocrine system which is directly connected with activity of the energy centers (chakras) and energy pathways (channels – nadis). Correct functioning of ida, pingala and sushumna nadi directly influence the limbic system and mechanisms of homeostasis. Limbic system is responsible for regulation of the homeostatic (self-regulated) mechanism. This system carries out its regulatory functions through the hypothalamic region. Taking into consideration importance of the effects that are accomplished by yoga practicing, there is a growing need for scientific research of yoga practice with the aim of better understanding of these phenomena. By scientific researches, we reach the essence of the yoga mechanics and dynamics, with approach that really represents ‘thinking-out-of-the-box’, from the field of expended awareness.

Key words: endocrine system, nervous system, chakras, nadis, yoga, Kundalini yoga.

Raghuwanshi, A. (2011): Studies on Neuro-Endocrinological Correlates of Yogic Pathways. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 10-18

 
 

Correlation between essential and yoga competences

Prof. Predrag K. Nikić, PhD
International Academy for Yoga Teachers Education
Yoga Federation of Serbia
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: Yoga is philosophical system and old discipline of self-development. Yoga is present in science and in every segment of everyday life. Today we recognize two approaches to yoga: yoga as a system, i.e. discipline of self-improvement, life style that results from a yoga life philosophy and yoga as efficient techniques.
In this article, we consider yoga to be a specific kind of intelligence and bear in mind that yoga is a kind of ability that helps to establish ballance between body, emotional, social and cognitive abilities.
We cannot perceive yoga isolated as a desirable capability of an individual, but as a possibility that arises from insight that there are latent potentials within us that may be recognized, understood and used with the aim to achieve the state of unity – Samadhi. We should bear in mind that yoga practice is pervaded with equal dimensions: motor, cognitive, emotional and social. Life is the field of meeting different, sometimes confronted forces: aims, needs, requests, wants and possibilities. Needs are not only material, needs are often not rational, requests are very often emotional and limited with the social pressure of acceptable behavior. Therefore, emotional dimension pervades every life activity. Results of conducted research show that practitioners who completed education for yoga instructors have more developed competences of the essential intelligence, comparing to the control group of non-instructors, they become more self-aware, more sensible for the needs of surrounding and they are more trust worthy, which was measured by estimation of behavior by practitioners, as well as by self-estimation.

Key words: yoga, intelligence, yoga intelligence, essential intelligence, yoga competences

Nikić, P. (2011): Correlation Between Essential and Yoga Competences. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 19-28

 

 

Effects of yoga practice on overcoming stress

Bosiljka Janjušević
Yoga Federation of Serbia
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: In this article, the beneficial effects of yoga practicing to ability of adequate stress response were analyzed. The initial hypothesis was that non-difficult yoga exercise, breathing techniques and relaxation lead to the better tolerating of stressful life situations and to the overcoming of leaking of well-balanced state and feeling of disability. All these benefits would lead to the better insight in problem solving, possibility of energy restoring and efficiency in every-day’s living. Also, the one acquires the better insight in its own perception, reactions and behavior in life situations, which enables the overall overcoming the stress.
The emotional condition of participants was evaluated using the instrument Profile Index Emotion – PIE (Plutchik and Kellerman, 1974), Yugoslav revision and standardization (Kostić, 1997), which measures eight dimensions, and their scores were compared along these dimensions. The research was conducted during 2009. with the sample of 30 yoga instructors and 30 persons that wasn’t practicing yoga nor relaxation techniques, of both genders and different education level, aged from 25 to 61.
Statistically significant differences between the group of yoga instructors and group of participants not-practicing yoga were noted, particularly in three dimensions: Depravity, Aggressivness, and Exploration. This research points out that the following characteristics were more pronounced in the group of yoga instructors: satisfaction with one’s personality, feeling for sense of living, absence of emotional tension, direction to the present, foundation in reality, and perspective way of looking to the future. We could conclude that yoga practicing, including yoga ananas, breathing techniques, meditation and relaxation, contribute to the better responding to stressful situations which became daily challenge. Also, better emotional stability, absence of feeling of denying and destruction, and conciseness on reaction principals were also achieved.

Key words: yoga, relaxation, stress, health, personality

Janjušević, B. (2011): Effects of Yoga Practice on Overcoming the Stress. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 29-40

 

 

Psychology of yoga and yoga psychology

Prof. Dr. Kiran Kumar K. Salagame
University of Mysore
Mysore, India

Abstract: In contemporary times Yoga, like laptops, notebooks, and mobile phones, is ubiquitous. It is unbelievable that it has made inroads in nooks and corners of the world and even in those countries where Communist ideology ruled the roost. The virtues of practicing yoga postures, and other allied techniques are extolled so much that sometimes it has gone from sublime to the ridiculous. On the research front, investigators have approached yoga primarily as a technique of inducing altered states of mind, as stress reduction strategy, as therapeutic adjunct and at times as a technique for promoting positive growth. While these efforts have yielded useful and beneficial results, these efforts have been criticized for their failure to do full justice to the original intention and context in which yoga as a system was developed and established. Hence, there is a necessity to distinguish between psychologists’ approach to yoga and Yoga as a psychological system as it was originally conceived in Indian traditions. In this paper this distinction will be elaborated and discussed.

Key words: yoga, yoga psychology, psychology of yoga

Salagame, K.K.K. (2011): Psychology of Yoga and Yoga Psychology. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 41-55

 
 

Differences in personality traits and motivation for recreational practice of yoga and fitness in women

Maja Piletić, PhD Milanko Čabarkapa
Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: Based on numerous studies in sports psychology there is a paradigm that the structure of athletes personality significantly differs from non-athletes, as well as understanding that there are significant differences among athletes involved in different sports. That’s the basic theory in our research setting, where we have a sample of 160 respondents (women practicing recreation) and we attempted to determine the existence of differences in personality traits, and self-motivation, comparing the group of those involved in hatha yoga (80 respondents), with those dealing with the fitness (80 respondents).
The study used short form of personality test known as the Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which measures five basic dimensions of personality to the Big-Five model of personality inventory and DELTA-20 (Knezevic, 2008), which assesses 10 modalities of disintegration regulatory functions, the instrument for assessing the functioning of the self-evaluating system GENSEL-40 (Opacic, 1995) and questionnaire for the examination of motivation in sport and recreational activities (by Keith Johnsgard, according to Mikalački M., 1995), which includes the usual list of 10 motives for the practice in sports and recreational activities.
The results show that there are significant differences in all three domains investigated psychological observed between the two groups of subjects. In the domain of basic personality structure, respondents involved in yoga have statistically significantly higher scores on the dimension of Openness in relation to the respondents involved in fitness, as well as significantly lower scores on the Neuroticism dimension. In the domain of self-perception or self-concept, there was found that the subjects involved in yoga have significantly lower scores on the subscales Misanthropy in relation to the respondents involved in fitness. The structure of motivation for physical exercise showed that in respondents involved in yoga, motives for skills and vitality are represented to a greater extent than in relation to the respondents involved in fitness, whereas there are the less represented motives for weight loss and beauty. Viewed as a whole, the results show that the structure of personality and motivation to a great extent determines the type of recreational activities and sports which the individuals are involved in.

Key words: recreation, yoga, fitness, personality traits, self-concept, motivation.

Piletić, M., Čabarkapa, M. (2011): Differences in Personality Traits and Motivation for Recreational Practice of Yoga & Fitness in Women. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 56-71

 

 

Stress reduction through yoga nidra

Megha Deuskar, PhD
Fergusson College,
Pune, Maharashtra, India

Abstract: Relaxation procedures have been receiving growing attention and interest of researchers in the field of health psychology. In the present study one such procedure, Yoga Nidrā, was studied for its effectiveness in reducing stress. Yoga Nidrā consists of resolve making, deep muscle relaxation, breathing exercises and imagery. 95 working mothers were randomly assigned to an experimental (N = 42) or a no treatment control group (N = 53). The experimental group received 30 sessions of Yoga Nidrā, over a one-and-a-half month period. Smith Stress Symptoms Inventory, blood pressure, plasma glucose and haemoglobin were selected as parameters of stress. Pre-test as well as post-test measures were taken. Univariate Analysis of Covariance, holding pre-test scores as covariates revealed that the Yoga Nidrā group was significantly lower than the control group on several parameters. Among those that showed a difference with treatment at both State and Trait levels were Autonomic arousal, Attentional deficit, Depression and Striated muscle tension. Two parameters, Worry and negative emotion and Interpersonal conflict and anger showed a difference only at the State level. Blood Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic decreased, while Haemoglobin levels increased after treatment. However, since the homogeneity of covariate variance assumption was violated for some of the parameters at the State level, viz., Worry and negative emotion, Attentional deficit, Autonomic arousal and anxiety, Striated muscle tension, Interpersonal conflict and anger and haemoglobin, these results have to be accepted with caution. The variance of the glucose scores of the experimental group reduced after treatment while that of the control group did not, as was expected.

Key words: yoga, nidra, stress, resistance, attention, behavioral medicine.

Deuskar, M. (2011): Stress Reduction through Yoga Nidra. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 72-80

 

 

Assessment of scientific research of yoga in medicine

1Prim. dr Dubravka Nikolovski, MSc,
2Prim. Mr. sci. med. dr Branislava Matić, 3Marina Nikolovska
1Institute for Public Health Pančevo,
2Institute for Public Health of Serbia „Dr Milan Jovanović Batut“
3Center for education and research in medicine, ecology and sociology (CERMES)

Abstract: In the last decade yoga has taken an important place in research work in the field of medicine. The objective of this study was to assess its value based on the journal’s impact factor and on the author’s citation. The methodology used index databases are available through KoBSON service. The results show that from 1130 reviewed papers from 160 different journals, leading papers are from India, but they are not in the Science Citation Index. Prestigious medical journals with IF higher than 30, such as Lancet and Nature have a slightly less number of papers. More than half (57.9%)of the journals are in the range of the first 30% of the subject area. According to the citation and the number of papers, the authors retain the supremacy of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, India. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the education of health workers in the field of yoga, and yoga practitioners in the field of scientific medical research methodology aiming to give yoga’s full contribution in the field of medicine.

Key words: yoga, medicine, validity of scientific research

Nikolovski, D., Matić, B., Nikolovska, M. (2011): Аssessment of Scientific Research of Yoga in Medicine. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 81-89

 

 

Modern cosmology and Hindu perspectives on the Universe

Mgr. Brankica Šurlan
Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Ondřejov, Czech Republic

Abstract: In an attempt to better understand how our Universe was created and what is the origin of the Universe, hence our origin, in this paper we present two different perspectives, which give answers to these questions. According to the most acceptable theory of the Modern Cosmology, the Universe was created by a cosmic explosion, the Big Bang, about 13.7 billions years ago. From that initial creation, the whole Universe continued to expand, created time, space, and matter, which was the base of the formation of stars, galaxies, planets, and life itself. Up to now scientific studies point out that the Universe is filled with both visible and invisible matter. Only a small part of the Universe is what we have been able to detect and observe till nowadays. The rest part of the Universe is assumed to be filled with the so-called dark matter and dark energy. The theories of the Modern Cosmology predict different scenarios of the evolution and the fate of the Universe, but it still not possible to say which of them is correct with certainty. On the other hand, from the perspective of Hindu cosmology, the Universe exists for many billions of years with neither beginning nor end. There has been an infinite number cycles of creation and destruction of the Universe. The present Universe is explained as just one in a series of manifestations. Each manifestation of the universe is unique and follows an order which can be recognized in the form of various physical laws. The energy, which appears in form of everything what we can see, is all the time the same. The energy is everlasting like the time, but only its manifestations change during time. Present apparent universe is created from unmanifested energy, in which it will return back, and then it will again obtain manifested shape. Comparing these two perspectives of the Universe, similarities and differences are explored and discussed in this paper. Conclusions are derived, which show how much the modern science corresponds to ancient Hindu perspective on the Universe, and on which way level of cognition is reached in Hinduism to that the modern science just aspires.

Key words: cosmology, Hindu cosmology, yoga, universe.

Šurlan, B. (2011): Modern Cosmology and Hindu Perspectives on the Universe. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 90-103

 

 

Brain waves, Sanskrit chanting and sacred silence

Yogi Andre Riehl
Federation of Traditional Yoga – France
Studio for Yoga Retreats PRANA BINDU (Ujjain, India)
and SOMAPA (Avignon, France)

Abstract: In this paper we research correlation between brain waves and states of consciousness in contemporary medicine and traditional yoga teachings. We can confirm simillarities in consideration of the states of consciousness although traditional yoga approach derives from the distant past when there didn’t exist contemporary medical apparatuses as electroencephalograph and scanner. Yoga praxis introduced intonation of mantras as an instrument for spiritual purification and improvement. In this paper we explain correlation between different states of conscious and use of mantras. Yoga praxis knew the influence of Sanskrit mantras chanting (vibrational syllables) and developmental impact of their practice. Sanskrit chanting (intonation) of mantras has been used with the purpose to introduce yogi to the refined (higher) states of consciousness.

Key words: brain waves, silence, states of consciousness, yoga, meditation.

Riehl, Y.A. (2011): Brain Waves, Sanskrit Chanting and Sacred Silence. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 104-111

 

 

Closer to the essence of yoga experience

Dr. Paul Posadzki
University of Exeter
Great Britain

Abstract: Lack of appropriately designed (mixed-method approach that incorporates qualitative methodology) can be the challenge nowadays to researchers. There is often no full awareness of the yoga practitioners’ experiences during randomised controlled trials. There are a limited number of qualitative studies per se on psychological experiences of yoga practice. This paper presents an in-depth, qualitative study, analysing responses to focus-group interviews regarding individuals’ self-reported experiences and health attitudes during yoga practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three yoga groups in order to collect research data. The analysis indicates extraordinary experiences of yoga practitioners on a various levels their bio-psychosocial-emotional functioning. The results section indicates how yoga influences the complexity and multidimensionality of individuals’ health and well being.

Key words: yoga, yoga experience, phenomenology.

Posadzki, P. (2011): Closer to the Essence of Yoga Experience. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 112-118

 

 

Yoga and sexuality: a novel way to improve sexual functioning

Vikas Dhikav, MD, Girish Karmarkar, Kuljeet Anand
Department of Neurology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, GGS-IP University
New Delhi, India

Abstract: Yoga is an ancient practice and has the objective and perceived ability to calm down mind and body. Medical studies about effects of yoga practicing had been conducted worldwide. Many results of the conducted researches show that practicing yoga have value in a plethora of mind and body conditions. In this paper, we have shown its beneficial utility in sexual function. Our first study published in the year 2007 showed that it is useful in treating premature ejaculation (PE). We had compared yoga with fluoxetine, a well known treatment option for PE. We have demonstrated in our subsequent studies (Published in 2010) that yoga is not only effective in PE but also improves all major parameters of males and female sexual functions. Our ongoing studies will test ability of yoga in erectile dysfunction and sexual satisfaction.

Key words: yoga, sexuality, sexual functioning

Dhikav, V., Karmarkar, G., Anand, K. (2011): Yoga and Sexuality: a Novel Way to Improve Sexual Functioning. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 119-124

 

 

S3 – a conceptual model of individual and collective growth with its applications

Dr. Samprasad Vinod
Maharshi Vinod Research Foundation
Pune, India

Abstract: In this paper we examine and argue on the functionality of S3 model or “Swanand Sahayog Sadhana” – conceptual model of individual and collective development and the role of yoga in conducting the proposed model. Searching for happines is the goal of every individual. Discovery of individual happiness provides deeper and more meaningful relationship with one’s surrounding. S3 model explains basics of the material and spiritual growth that mutually harmonize and supplement each other. This paper analyzes the extent to which yoga techniques help develop individual and collective consciouness.

Key words: individual development, yoga, collective development, change.

Vinod, S. (2011): S3 – a Conceptual Model of Individual and Collective Growth with its Applications. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 125-134

 

 

Yoga pranayam – importance of systematical approach to breathing

Dr. Mukund Bhole
Pune, India

Abstract: In this paper we indicate specificity of traditional yoga approach in education during practice of the pranayama technique (control of life energy through breathing). Technique of pranayama may be perceived as a powerful instrument in different forms of help to individuals and in the process of self-development of an individual, to the most extent.

Key words: yoga breathing, pranayama, motivation, self-realization.

Bhole, M. (2011): Yoga Pranayam – Importance of Systematical Approach to Breathing. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 135-137

 

 

Possibility of healing with yoga sound meditation

Nevena Petkova
Yoga studio NADA, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Dr. Dimitrina Todorova
Quantum Phisics Center, Sofia, Bulgaria

Abstract: In this paper there was represented a research about the possibility to achieve health condition by practicing meditations with sound. It is analyzed how does specific sound vibrations influence our body at physical and especially at energetic level? This was observed and measured by computer diagnostics using the methodology of R. Foll at 2006 by yoga studio Nada – Plovdiv, Bulgaria and Dr. D. Todorova, Quantum Physics Center, Sofia. Result shows that, observed at the energetic level, sound meditation harmonize organs and their functioning in the organism ans significantly lowers pathological phenomena, i.e. appearance of different disorders. Further researches should examine persistence and stability of the effect that sound meditation has on the human organism.

Key words: yoga, healing, sound meditation.

Petkova, N., Todorova, D. (2011): Possibility of Healing with Yoga Sound Meditation. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p.138-144

 

 

Yoga as a method of personal development

Danica Lepojevik
Yoga Federation of Macedonia
Skopje, Macedonia

Abstract: The purpose of this research is a verification of yoga practising influence upon certain personality characteristics, as well as a possibility of their change in direction of a more successful functioning. The participants of the research have been attending voluntarily for three months beginners course of integral yoga based on teacher/master Pavlos K. Hassanagas’s methodology. The programme includes vyayama (preparatory psycho-physical techniques), asanas, panayama, relaxation techniques and theoretical segments on basic yoga concepts and from applied yoga philosophy. In 33participants, at the beginning and at the end of the three months long course, an assessment of a personal profile has been conducted, using Plutchik questionnaire Profile Index of Emotions, as well as an evaluation of the ego defence mechanisms’ profiles using Kellerman Life Style Index questionnaire. Analyses show that in this short period statistically important differences appear regarding personality profiles of examinees: both traits in the pair anticipation– surprise become more pronounced, but still within the limits of optimal manifestation. More specifically, an interest for surrounding increases and yoga practitioners grow more free and opened toward new experiences; this tendency is even more stabilised as levels of organisation, self-control and conscientiousness increase at the same time. Manifestation levels of emotions of sadness and anger drop which, in relation with other indicators, signifies decreased level of hostility and pugnacity due to enhanced satisfaction with oneself and the quality of one’s life, which results in better inter-personal relations. Results of this research show that yoga, along with other benefits its practising bestows, is also a method that helps a person to improve their attitude to their self and their surroundings, that way improving the quality of their own life in general.

Key words: integral yoga, emotions, ego defence mechanism, personal development

Lepojevik, D. (2011): Yoga as a Method of Personal Development. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 145-155

 

 

Possible application of yoga in victimology

Prof. Vesna Nikolić – Ristanović, PhD
Victimology Society of Serbia
Faculty for special education and rehabilitation, University of Belgrade

Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: The paper tends to explore possibilities of application of yoga in victimology as a science on crime victims, in general, and in particular in relation to the following aspects: support to crime victims, including victims of war, during recovery process, prevention of burn-out of those who are delivering services to victims as well as of researchers who conduct interviews with especially vulnerable categories of victims; prevention of victimisation; in facilitating processes of facing the past and reconciliation within postconflict societies.
Bearing in mind the scarce literature and research in this aspect of yoga connection with science, the paper is primarily based on the analyses of my personal experience of conducting victimological surveys, supporting victims and on reconciliation and the experiences of others.

Key words: yoga, victimology, victims, support, reconciliation

Nikolić-Ristanović, V. (2011): Possible Application of Yoga in Victimology. In: P.Nikić, ed.Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 156-161

 

 

The contribution of yoga to the development of emotional competences

Mgr. Danica Bulut – Jakovljević
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: During 1990s, there have been started substantial researches on the impact of emotional intelligence on various aspects of human life. In this paper, we considered contribution of yoga to the development of emotional competences through theoretical approach. Two elements of emotional competence were considered – self-awareness and self-control. Self-awareness or emotional awareness as the way of understanding of the manner that emotions influence working behavior and efficient decision making. We concluded that self-awareness represents the first step toward self-control and empathy with other people and that yogra practice may significantly influence that process. In the self-awareness development we listen to emotions and learn from them. Since yoga practice helps to increase self-control, the paper concludes that specific yoga techniques may be used in development of emotional competences and that there are needed further researches in order to examine this phenomenon.

Key words: emotional intelligence, yoga, self-awareness, self-control, self-realization, emotions.

Bulut-Jakovljević, D. (2011): The Contribution of Yoga to the Development of Emotional Competences. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 162-168

 

 

Five states-of-mind in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras with contemporary implications

Pratibha Rita Gramann, Ed.M.
University Takshila
California, USA

Abstract: The aim of this study is to research similarities and differences in scholarly experts’ overview of the five states of mind described in Yogasutra’s which, according to Patanjali, represent the key set of constructs of our psychological nature and lead to transformation and removal of suffering, taking into consideration relevant literature in the field of psychology, in the light of new approach to psycho-physiological phenomena. This research gives different perspectives of the contemporary and ancient scientists, searching for appropriate conclusions. Conclusions of this study may initiate future researches in the filed of understanding the mental processing.

Key words: state of mind, sutra, attention, restless, dullness, distraction, focus, mind-without-thoughts, suffering.

Gramann, P. (2011): Five States-of- Mind in Patanjali’s Yogasutra with Contemporary Implications. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 169-178

 

 

Presence of yoga in art

Rada Petrović
Belgrade, Serbia

Summary: Yoga is a philosophical system which has left its trails over the centuries in different areas of life. The art is no exception either. Art sculptures, drawings, graphics tell about artistic tendencies of the moment in which they originated, tainted with philosophy of life of the region that brought forth the Yoga itself. Tantra Yoga perceives sexuality as the possibility of achieving the enlightenment. In this paper the appearance of love couples in reliefs and sculptures on several temples in India (Khajurako, Konarak, Puri) will be dealt with. The plastic (the sculptures) on these temples represent an important phase in the development of the art in India, which points out to the historical moment and the cultural phenomenon regarding the sexuality which comes from Yoga. In this paper a deeper meaning of erotic sculptures is investigated which is expressed more comprehensive on the temples in India than anywhere else in the world. The presence of metaphysics in India’s culture is referred to, which provides a large space for expressing the polarity of the male and the female principle in their eternal mutual play and the strive for the unity and achieving the deeper spiritual experience which is offered by Yoga. Within this context the sexual intercourse is not considered only as a strong act of desire but rather as something which also has a more profound level of cosmological conception, and it is the reminder of the cosmic creative act.

Key words: art, yoga, sexuality, Tantra yoga

Petrović, R. (2011): Presence of Yoga in Art. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 179-183

 

 

Normalization of the blood pressure with yoga

Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
International Centre for Yoga Education and Research (ICYER) at Ananda Ashram
Pondicherry, India

Abstract: One of the most common health disorders today is hypertension or high blood pressure. It happens when the pressure in blood vessels is higher than normal expected values for age and sex. In this paper we search if yoga can be efficient method for normalization of the blood pressure. Different studies conducted by Datey, Madanmohan, Vijayalakshmi, Patel, Murugesan and Selvamurthy has shown that potential of yoga is efficient preventive method and supporting therapy in normalization of the high blood pressure.

Key words: blood pressure, yoga, stress, hypertension.

Bhavanani, A.B. (2011): Normalization of the Blood Pressure with Yoga. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 184-188

 

 

Application of yoga concept in the health improvement

Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
International Centre for Yoga Education and Research (ICYER) at Ananda Ashram
Pondicherry, India

Abstract: Different yoga techniques can be used as a support in healing disorders, i.e. in bringing health back, in regeneration, recovering and rehabilitation. In this paper we research effects of accepting yoga as a life philosophy, but also effects of yoga practice. Results show that yoga can be recognized as efficient method in medical prevention, in overcoming different disorders, as well as in rehabilitation. Connection of modern medical praxis and yoga practice give extraordinary results and can be perceived as a serious proposal for the further medical orientation.

Key words: yoga, yoga concept, health improvement, yoga sutras.

Bhavanani, A.B. (2011): Application of Yoga Concept in the Health Improvement. In: P.Nikić, ed. Proceedings “Yoga – the Light of Microuniverse” of the International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference “Yoga in Science – Future and Perspectives”, September 23-24, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Yoga Federation of Serbia, p. 189-193